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عجایب جهان

از زمان‌های قدیم تا به امروز فهرست‌های مختلفی با عنوان عجایب جهان برای معرفی تماشایی‌ترین شگفتی‌های طبیعی و همچنین ساختهٔ بشر در جهان تدوین شده‌اند.

عجایب هفت‌گانه جهان اولین فهرست شناخته‌شده از برجسته‌ترین ساخته‌های دوران classical antiquity است که بر اساس کتاب‌های راهنمای شناخته‌شده در بین گردشگران یونان باستان و تنها شامل آثاری بود که در محدودهٔ دریای مدیترانه بنا شده بودند. عدد هفت به این دلیل انتخاب شده بود که یونانیان آن را نماد کمال و بسندگی می‌دانستند.[۱] فهرست‌های مشابه زیادی ایجاد شده‌اند.

محتویات

عجایب هفت‌گانهٔ جهان باستان

هرم بزرگ جیزه، تنها شگفتی جهان باستان که هنوز نیز پا برجاست
Old City of Jerusalem
The Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights
The London sewerage system's original Abbey Mills pumping station

دروازه ایشتر در فهرست‌های اولیه به‌جای فانوس اسکندریه به‌عنوان هفتمین شگفتی جهان آورده شده‌بود.

امروزه هرم بزرگ جیزه تنها شگفتی جهان باستان است که هنوز پا بر جا مانده است.

Medieval World

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, some writers claimed that lists of wonders of the world have existed during the قرون وسطی, although it is unlikely that these lists originated at that time because the word قرون وسطی was not invented until the عصر روشنگری-era, and the concept of a Middle Age did not become popular until the 16th century. Brewer's refers to them as "later list[s]"[۲] suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages.

Many of the structures on these lists were built much earlier than the Medieval Ages, but were well known.[۳] These lists go by names such as Wonders of the Middle Ages (implying no specific limitation to seven), Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages, Medieval Mind and Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages.

Typically representative are:[۲][۳][۴][۵]

Other sites sometimes included on such lists:

عجایب جهان امروز

Many organisations have made lists of the greatest structures built during modern times, or of the greatest wonders existing today. Some of the most notable lists are presented below.

انجمن مهندسان عمران آمریکا

انجمن مهندسان عمران آمریکا فهرستی از عجایب جهان امروز را تنظیم کرده‌اند:[۱۰]

Wonder Date started Date finished Location
تونل مانش ۱ دسامبر، ۱۹۸۷ ۶ مه، ۱۹۹۴ تنگه دوور، بین بریتانیا و فرانسه
برج سی‌ان February 6, 1973 June 26, 1976, tallest freestanding structure in the world 1976–2007. تورنتو, انتاریو, کانادا
ساختمان امپایر استیت January 22, 1930 May 1, 1931, Tallest structure in the world 1931–1967. First building with 100+ stories. نیویورک سیتی, نیویورک (ایالت), ایالات متحده آمریکا
پل گلدن گیت January 5, 1933 May 27, 1937 گلدن گیت، شمال سان‌فرانسیسکو، کالیفرنیا، ایالات متحده آمریکا
Itaipu Dam January 1970 May 5, 1984 پارانا (رود), between برزیل and پاراگوئه
Delta Works/ Zuiderzee Works 1920 May 10, 1997 هلند
آبراه پاناما January 1, 1880 January 7, 1914 باریکه پاناما

New7Wonders Foundation

نوشتار اصلی: New Seven Wonders of the World‎



In 2001 an initiative was started by the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation to choose the عجایب هفتگانه جدید from a selection of 200 existing monuments.[۱۱] عجایب هفتگانه جدید were announced January 1, 2006.[۱۲] Egyptians were not happy that the only surviving original wonder, the هرم بزرگ جیزه, would have to compete with the likes of the Statue of Liberty, the Sydney Opera House, and other landmarks, calling the project absurd. In response, Giza was named an honorary Candidate.[۱۳] The results were announced on July 7, 2007, in لیسبون, پرتغال :[۱۴]

Wonder Date of construction Location
Great Wall of China 5th century BCE – 16th century CE جمهوری خلق چین
پترا c.100 BCE اردن
Christ the Redeemer Opened 12 October 1931 برزیل
Machu Picchu c.1450 CE پرو
Chichen Itza c.600 CE مکزیک
Colosseum Completed 80 CE ایتالیا
Taj Mahal Completed c.1648 CE هند
Great Pyramid of Giza (Honorary Candidate) Completed c.2560 BCE مصر

USA Today's New Seven Wonders

In November 2006 the American national newspaper یواس‌ای تودی in conjunction with the American television show Good Morning America revealed a list of New Seven Wonders as chosen by six judges.[۱۵] The wonders were announced one per day over a week on Good Morning America. An eighth wonder was chosen on November 24, 2006 from viewer feedback.[۱۶]

Number Wonder Location
1 قصر پوتالا لهاسا, تبت, جمهوری خلق چین
2 Old City of Jerusalem اورشلیم[n ۱]
3 Polar ice caps سرزمین‌های قطبیs
4 Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument هاوائی, ایالات متحده آمریکا
5 اینترنت زمین
6 تمدن مایا معماری مایا شبه‌جزیره یوکاتان, مکزیک
7 Great Migration of Serengeti and Masai Mara تانزانیا and کنیا
8 گرند کنیون (viewer-chosen eighth wonder) آریزونا, ایالات متحده آمریکا

Seven Natural Wonders of the World

Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of the world, as there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many lists was compiled by سی‌ان‌ان:[۱۷]

New7Wonders of Nature is a contemporary effort to create a list of seven natural wonders chosen by people through a global poll, organized by New Open World Corporation (NOWC), which ran the New Seven Wonders of the World campaign.

The Seven Natural Wonders[۱۸] is a not-for-profit endeavour created to protect the seven natural wonders that have already been established.

Seven Wonders of the Underwater World

The Seven Underwater Wonders of the World was a list drawn up by CEDAM International, an American-based non-profit group for divers, dedicated to ocean preservation and research.

In 1989 CEDAM brought together a panel of marine scientists, including Dr. Eugenie Clark, to pick underwater areas which they considered to be worthy of protection. The results were announced at The National Aquarium in Washington DC by actor Lloyd Bridges, star of TV's Sea Hunt:[۱۹]

Seven Wonders of the Industrial World

نوشتار اصلی: Seven Wonders of the Industrial World‎



British author Deborah Cadbury wrote Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a book telling the stories of seven great feats of engineering of the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2003 the بی‌بی‌سی made a seven-part documentary series on the book, with each episode dramatising the construction of one of the wonders. The seven industrial wonders are:

Other lists of wonders of the world

Numerous other authors and organisations have composed lists of the wonders of the world. Travel writer Howard Hillman published two books on the subject, one with 10 man-made wonders, and one with 10 natural wonders.[۲۰][۲۱] British biographer, science writer, and novelist Ronald W. Clark published a book of man-made and natural wonders titled Wonders of the World, which lists 52 wonders, one for each week of the year.[۲۲]

جستارهای وابسته

  • Eighth Wonder of the World
  • میراث جهانی یونسکو – a list of over 800 sites deemed by یونسکو to be of "outstanding universal value"
  • National Seven Wonders
    • Seven Wonders of Canada
    • Seven Wonders of Colombia
    • Seven Wonders of Poland
    • Seven Wonders of Portugal
    • Seven Wonders of Russia
    • Seven Wonders of Serbia
    • Seven Wonders of Ukraine
    • Seven Wonders of Wales
  • Seven Wonders of Fore (Fore Abbey, Ireland)
  • Seven Blunders of the World—a list by ماهاتما گاندی

Footnotes

منابع

  1. Anon. (1993)The Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia First Edition Oxford:Oxford University
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ Hereward Carrington (1880–1958), "The Seven Wonders of the World: ancient, medieval and modern", reprinted in the Carington Collection (2003) ISBN 0-7661-4378-3, page 14.
  4. Edward Latham. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things (1904), page 280.
  5. Francis Trevelyan Miller, توماس وودرو ویلسون, ویلیام هووارد تافت, تئودور روزولت. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201.
  6. Palpa, as You Like it, page 67)
  7. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades (2001, page 153))
  8. The Rough Guide To England (1994, page 596))
  9. The Catholic Encyclopedia, v.16 (1913), page 74
  10. "American Society of Civil Engineers Seven Wonders". Asce.org. 2010-07-19. http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=2147487305. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  11. New Seven Wonders
  12. Finalist Page
  13. "Egypt Angered at New Wonders Idea". Home.bellsouth.net. 1985-01-01. http://home.bellsouth.net/s/editorial.dll?eetype=Article&eeid=5356431&render=y&ck=&Table=&_lid=332&_lnm=todays+guide+onnet+sevenwonders+tglink&ck=. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  14. "''Reuters via ABC News Australia "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled" 7 July 2007". Abc.net.au. 2007-07-08. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/07/08/1972797.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  15. "New Seven Wonders panel". Usatoday.com. 2006-10-27. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2006-10-26-seven-wonders-experts_x.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  16. Clark, Jayne (2006-12-22). "The world's 8th wonder: Readers pick the Grand Canyon". Usatoday.com. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2006-11-23-7-wonders-grand-canyon_x.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  17. "CNN Natural Wonders". Cnn.com. 1997-11-11. http://www.cnn.com/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/9711/natural.wonders/. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  18. "Seven Natural Wonders". Sevennatualwonders.org. http://www.sevennatualwonders.org/. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  19. "Underwater Wonders of the World". Wonderclub. http://www.wonderclub.com/WorldWonders/UnderWaterWonders.html/. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  20. Hillman, Howard. "World's top 10 man-made travel wonders". Hillman Quality Publications. http://www.hillmanwonders.com/top10/man_made.htm#_vtop. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  21. Hillman, Howard. "World's top 10 natural travel wonders". Hillman Quality Publications. http://www.hillmanwonders.com/top10/natural.htm#_vtop. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  22. Clark, Ronald W. (1980). Wonders of the World. Artus Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 978-0668049320. 

مطالعات بیشتر

  • Ash, Russell, "Great Wonders of the World". Dorling Kindersley. 2000. ISBN 978-0751328868
  • Cox, Reg, and Neil Morris, "The Seven Wonders of the Modern World". Chelsea House Publications: Library. October 2000. ISBN 0-7910-6048-9
  • Cox, Reg, Neil Morris, and James Field, "The Seven Wonders of the Medieval World". Chelsea House Publications: Library. October 2000. ISBN 0-7910-6047-0
  • D'Epiro, Peter, and Mary Desmond Pinkowish, "What Are the Seven Wonders of the World? and 100 Other Great Cultural Lists". Anchor. December 1, 1998. ISBN 0-385-49062-3
  • Morris, Neil, "The Seven Wonders of the Natural World". Chrysalis Books. December 30, 2002. ISBN 1-84138-495-X

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